Definitive Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Can Be Made by Prostate Biopsy – University of Kyrenia
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Definitive Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Can Be Made by Prostate Biopsy

Definitive Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Can Be Made by Prostate Biopsy

Prof. Dr. Ali Ulvi Önder from the Near East University Hospital, Department of Urology, pointed out that Prostate Cancer (PCa-prostate cancer), which is the most common cancer type among men, does not depend on a single cause and there are various risk factors in cancer development. Prof. Dr. Önder stated that the cancer risk of persons who have 2 people with prostate cancer from first degree relatives has increased 5.1 times.

The risk increases 5.1 times in people who have 2 persons suffering from prostate cancer in their first-person relatives. Prof. Dr. Ali Ulvi Önder stated that epidemiological studies show that prostate cancer has both family and genetic features, roughly 2.2 times the risk of developing prostate cancer in a person with a PCa in his father, 2.4 times in those with his sibling, and 5 in the first-degree relatives.

Excessive consumption of unsaturated fat increases the risk of getting prostate cancer…
Prof. Dr. Ali Ulvi Önder said, “Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men. One of the important risk factors is fat consumption. Excessive consumption of unsaturated fats and obesity increase both the risk of developing prostate cancer and the development of malignant cancer. In addition, cigarette, red meat and animal fat consumption increases the risk of PCa, while lycopene (tomato, other red vegetables, and fruits), selenium (cereal, fish, meat-poultry meat, eggs, dairy products), omega-3 fatty acids (fish), Vitamin D and E has an effect on reducing the risk of prostate cancer.”

If you suffer from urinary difficulty, burning while urinating, frequent urination, night urination, urinary incontinence, bifurcation, consult your physician…

According to the degree of obstruction caused by the PCa in the urinary tract, Prof. Dr. Önder stated that the patient suffers from complaints such as difficulty in urinating, burning while urinating, frequent urination, night urination, urinary incontinence, bifurcation, difficulty in keeping urine, and said “In the presence of advanced stage or metastatic PCa, pain in the backbones, especially in the region where the disease is affected, may be the patient’s first complaint.”

The definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer can be made with prostate biopsy …
Explaining that the definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer is made by pathological examination of tissue obtained from prostate biopsy, Prof. Dr. Ali Ulvi Önder said, “The most important determinants of the biopsy decision are the DRE-Digital Rectal Examination of the prostate and the PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) test in the blood”.People with a family history of Pca should have a PSA test from the age of 40 and those who do not at the age of 50. Emphasizing that PCa is the most common type of cancer among men and its frequency increases with the increasing age, periodic controls of men regarding PCa are extremely important after a certain age, Prof. Dr. Önder said “It is recommended that people with a family history of PCa have a health control by the age of 40, and those who do not have a PSA test and DRE by the age of 50. This is a simple and inexpensive form of cancer screening. The patient may have cancer in his prostate even if he has no complaints.”

Computed Tomography or MRI for Staging, Whole Body Bone Scintigraphy or PETVarious Imaging Methods are also Used …
Prof. Dr. Ali Ulvi Önder said, “The standard practice in prostate biopsy today is the biopsy performed with the help of breech ultrasound (TRUS – transrectal ultrasound). In this application, the prostate is displayed with ultrasound and biopsy is performed systematically with the help of a special needle and gun. Generally, a total of 8-12 biopsies are taken and sent to the laboratory for pathological examination. The biopsy is performed without anesthesia or preferably under local anesthesia. If PCa is diagnosed as a result of the biopsy, the stage of the disease is determined in order to make a treatment decision. Various imaging methods are used for staging, such as computed tomography or MRI, whole-body bone scintigraphy, or PET. ”

There are 3 main stages in prostate cancer …
Prof. Dr. Ali Ulvi Önder “As with all cancer diseases, the treatment of prostate cancer is done according to the stage of the disease. We can roughly divide the prostate cancer stage into 3 main groups. Organ-confined disease, locally advanced stage, and advanced stage. The decision to treat PCa depends on factors such as the stage of the disease, biopsy data, the patient’s state of health, and the patient’s age.”

Standard Treatment Options by Stage; Follow-up, Active Follow-up, Radiotherapy, Surgery …
Prof. Dr. Ali Ulvi Önder said, “We can list the standard treatment options according to the stages as follows. In organ-limited disease; a) Follow-up: Follow-up of the patient without any treatment. It is generally applied to older patients with low progression potential. b) Active Monitoring: It can be applied to patients who have a low progression potential, low PSA value, and who have cancer in 1 or at most 2 parts in their biopsy, after a certain period of biopsy. c) Radiotherapy: It is the inactivation of the tumor by placing radioactive nuclei from the outside or inside of the prostate. d) Surgery: Prostate cancer surgery is the removal of the entire prostate with the semen sac and the last part of the semen canal. It is a very different application from surgery performed due to BPH. It can be made open or closed. Closed surgery is a laparoscopic method and it has 2 options as standard or robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. The oncological results of radiotherapy, open surgery, standard laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy treatments are similar, but each method has its own advantages and disadvantages.”

Treatment Options in locally advanced disease are surgery and radiotherapy …
Stating that the treatment options in locally advanced disease are surgery and radiotherapy, Prof. Dr. Ali Ulvi Önder said: “Radiotherapy and surgery are similar to organ-limited disease, but combined treatment may be required at this stage, since the risk of recurrence of the disease is high. There may be hormonal treatment options before or after radiotherapy, hormonal treatment before and/or after surgery, or radiotherapy treatment after surgery. The standard treatment option in advanced-stage disease is hormonal therapy. Hormonal therapy is the drugs that are applied in the form of needles or pills, which inhibit the effect of the male hormone testosterone, therefore, by preventing the development of normal and cancer cells of the prostate. They have no serious side effects such as systemic chemotherapy.”

All diagnoses, staging methods, and treatments related to prostate cancer are successfully performed at the Near East University Hospital…
Prof. Dr. Ali Ulvi Önder finally said that all the treatment and staging methods related to prostate cancer, as well as all treatment options, are successfully carried out at the Near East University Hospital.